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F1のスペアカーの使用、パワーユニット、ギアボックス交換に関するルール




 

スペアカーの使用

F1ではスペアカーの使用を禁止されています。1レースイベントにおける1チームが使用できるマシンの数は2台と規定されています。

 

 

 

パワーユニット交換

F1のパワーユニットは以下の6つの要素から構成されています。

  • ICE (エンジン)
  • MGU-K (運動エネルギー回収システム)
  • MGU-H (熱エネルギー回収システム)
  • ES (エナジーストア)
  • TC (ターボチャージャー)
  • CE (コントロールユニット)

 


出典:honda.co.jp

 

各コンポーネントはシーズンを通して使用できる数に制限があり、年々見直しが行われています。2019年シーズンにおける各コンポーネントの使用制限数は以下の通りです。

 

ICE、MGU-K、MGU-H、TC

年間3基まで

 

ES、CE

年間2基まで

 

これらの構成要素を自由に組み合わせることができます。例えば、エンジン(ICE)を交換したとしても、エンジン以外のコンポーネントは流用することができます。

最初に各コンポーネントの規定数を超えて使用する場合、10グリッド降格のペナルティが科されます。次回以降は5グリッドの降格ペナルティとなります。

複数のコンポーネントを規定数を超えて使用する場合は、グリッド降格のペナルティはコンポーネント毎に加算されます。

15グリッドを超える降格ペナルティが科された場合は、グリッド最後尾からのスタートとなります。最後尾スタートとなるドライバーが複数いる場合には、ペナルティが科された時間が早い方のドライバーが前方のグリッドに着きます。

 

 

ギアボックス交換

各ドライバーはギアボックス1基を6レース連続で使用する必要があります。ギアボックス交換を行った場合は決勝のスターティンググリッドが5グリッド降格となります。

 

 

2020 FORMULA 1 SPORTING REGULATIONS

23) SPARE CARS, ENGINES AND GEARBOXES

23.1 Each competitor may have no more than two cars available for use at any one time during an Event.

23.2 Any driver whose car has a change of survival cell following the start of the third free practice session (P3) must start the race from the pit lane following the procedures detailed in Article 36.2. Under these circumstances the car concerned will not have to comply with the requirements of Article 34.

23.3 a) Unless he drives for more than one team (see 23.3(c) below), and subject to the additions described below, each driver may use no more than 3 engines (ICE), 3 motor generator units-heat (MGU-H), 3 turbochargers (TC), 2 energy stores (ES), 2 control electronics (CE) and 3 motor generator units-kinetic (MGU-K) during a Championship season.

With the consent of (and at the sole discretion of) the FIA, the numbers above will be increased by one for any driver using a power unit provided by a new power unit manufacturer (as defined in Appendix 9) taking part in their first Championship season.

b) Should a driver use more than the numbers set in a) above of any one of the elements during a Championship season, a grid place penalty will be imposed upon him at the first Event during which each additional element is used. Penalties will be applied according to the following table and will be cumulative :

The first time an additional element is used Ten grid place penalty.

The next times an additional element is used Five grid place penalty.

If a driver incurs a penalty exceeding 15 grid places he will be required to start the race from the back of the starting grid.

Any of the six elements will be deemed to have been used once the car’s timing transponder has shown that it has left the pit lane.

During any single Event, if a driver introduces more than one of the same power unit element which is subject to penalties, only the last element fitted may be used at subsequent Events without further penalty.

c) If a driver is replaced at any time during the Championship season his replacement will be deemed to be the original driver for the purposes of assessing power unit usage.

d) After consultation with the relevant power unit supplier the FIA will attach seals to each of the relevant elements of the power unit prior to them being used for the first time at an Event in order to ensure that no significant moving parts can be rebuilt or replaced.

Within two hours of the end of the post-race parc ferme additional seals will be applied to all used power unit elements in order to ensure that they cannot be run or dismantled between Events. The sealing method must be agreed with the FIA technical delegate.

Upon request to the FIA these additional seals will be removed after the start of the next Event at which the power unit elements are required. All such power unit elements must remain within the team’s designated garage area when not fitted to a car and may not be started at any time during an Event other than when fitted to a car eligible to participate in the Event.

e) If any of the FIA seals are damaged or removed from the relevant components within the power unit after they have been used for the first time those parts may not be used again unless they were removed under FIA supervision.

23.4 The only power units that may be used at an Event during the 2017-2020 Championship seasons are either :

a) A power unit which is constituted only of elements that were in conformity, at the date they were introduced in the race pool, with the latest submitted and approved homologation dossier as defined in Appendix 4 of these regulations, or

b) A power unit previously homologated during the 2014-2020 period. Any manufacturer who homologated a power unit during this period may apply to the FIA to re-use such a power unit in a given team without going through the re-homologation process described in Appendix 4 of these regulations. Any such power units must be in conformity with the latest homologation dossier submitted to the FIA for that particular power unit for that season save for differences in parts agreed by the FIA at its absolute discretion to be solely associated with power unit installation with different teams, provided such differences have no significant effect on car performance. The homologation dossier must be updated with these differences. The FIA must be satisfied, at its absolute discretion, that such a power unit could fairly and equitably be allowed to compete with other homologated power units.

23.5 For the purposes of this Article only, an Event will be deemed to comprise P3, the qualifying practice session and the race.

a) Each driver may use no more than one gearbox for six consecutive Events in which his team competes. Should a driver use a replacement gearbox he will drop five places on the starting grid at that Event and an additional five places each time a further gearbox is used.

Any replacement gearbox will only be required to complete the remainder of the Event in question.

Unless the driver fails to finish the race (or is unable to start the race for reasons other than a penalty imposed by the stewards) the gearbox fitted to the car at the end of the Event must remain in it for the remainder of the six race sequence.

Any driver who failed to finish the race at the first, second, third, fourth or fifth of the six Events for reasons which the technical delegate accepts as being beyond the control of the team or driver, may start the following Event with a different gearbox without a penalty being incurred.

A gearbox will be deemed to have been used once the car’s timing transponder has shown that it has left the pit lane.

b) If a driver is replaced after the first, second, third, fourth or fifth Event of a six Event period, having finished the first, second, third, fourth and fifth Events, the replacement driver must use the gearbox which the original driver had been using.

c) After consultation with the relevant team the FIA will attach seals to each gearbox prior to it being used for the first time at an Event in order to ensure that no significant moving parts can be rebuilt or replaced.

d) Change gears and dog rings (excluding final drives or reduction gears) may be changed under supervision for others of identical specification at any time during an Event provided the FIA technical delegate is satisfied there is evident physical damage to the parts in question and that such changes are not being carried out on a systematic basis.

e) Other than under d) above, a replacement gearbox will also be deemed to have been used if any of the FIA seals are damaged or removed from the original gearbox after it has been used for the first time.

 

 

 

 

 

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